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Republica Federativa Italiana
640px-800px-Flag of Italy.svg

Flag of Italy

390px-Emblem of Italy.svg
Emblem of italy
Italia US Edition
Italy with European Union
Basic Information
Motto Dio e Popolo
Anthem Inno di Mameli
Inno di Mameli instrumental
Capital Rome
Largest city Venice
Other cities Torino, Palermo, Tunis, Vatican City, San Marino, Tuscany, Genoa
Demonym Italian
Government Representative Democracy And Federalism
President Giorgio Napolitano
Area 301,260 km²
Population 60.92 million (2012)
Established May 16, 1860 (Unification) May 16, 1920 (Republic)
Independence Italian Empire
Predecessor Italian Empire
Currency Euro
Time zone Central European Time Zone (UTC+01:00)
Internet TLD .it
Calling code +39
Languages
Official language Italian
National language Italian
Regional languages Catalan, Sardinian
Other languages Spanish
Ethnic groups
Main ethnic groups Italians
Other ethnic groups Italians
Religion
State religion Roman Catholicism
Main religion(s) Roman Catholicism
Other religions Islam, Othrodox, Christiannity, Protestant
Italy Known As Italian Republic And Italy Is Best Alliance With United States. And Ninth Half Lunar Landing Nation On Earth And Arsenal Nation.

Modern

Pasquale Paoli by W Beckey

Italian Father Pasqoli

Before 1860, Italy was an area that made of a group of smaller independent states, ruled by other countries (such as Austria, France, and Spain). This situation was shaken in 1796, when Napoleon I invaded Italy, forced Austria to withdraw from Italy. During the Napoleonic Wars, northern-central Italy was invaded and reorganized as a new Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the French Empire, while the southern half of the peninsula was administered by Joachim Murat, Napoleon's brother-in-law, who was crowned as King of Naples.

After the failure of French invasion to Britain, the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) restored the situation of the late 18th century, dividing Italy between Austria (in the north-east and Lombardy), the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (in the south and in Sicily), and Tuscany, the Papal States and other minor states in the centre. While the Corsican Republic was recreated (mostly came from Britain's initiatives), other old republics such as Venice and Genoa were not: Venice went to Austria and Genoa went to the Kingdom of Sardinia.

At the end, the sentiment for the unification of Italy was emerged as the liberal Corsican Republic and the conservative Kingdom of Sardinia under the House of Savoy were competed to become a regional power in the Italian peninsula. Both Corsica and Sardinia also successfully challenged Austria in the Second Italian War of Independence, liberating Lombardy-Venetia from Austrian rule. In 1860–61, General Giuseppe
Rossetti - Proclamazione della Repubblica Romana, nel 1849, in Piazza del Popolo - 1861

By Proclamaton of Italian Republic

Garibaldi led the drive for unification in Naples and Sicily, allowing the Corsican government led by Gian Paolo Borghetti to declare a federated government of Italian states on May 16, 1860.

By 1861, Veneto was still not part of Italy, because they were ruled by the Austrian Empire. Veneto was made part of Italy in 1866 after the Third Italian War of Independence. In 1870, Italian soldiers invaded Latium in 1870 and the Pope's power on the region was taken away by the federal government. The small remnants of Papal States were left only in Vatican and Avignon. Pope Pius IX, who was angry, declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican and the Papal States then left the federation, although he was not actually restrained from coming and going, to keep Catholic people from being active in politics. That year, Italy finally came back together although its capital was not moved from Naples to Rome until July 1871.

The highly liberal and democratic Corsican Constitution of 1815 was extended to the whole Italian Republic in 1861, provided the basic freedoms of the citizens and introduced universal male suffrage for property owners in Italy. The government of the newly-unified Italy took place in a framework of parliamentary republic dominated by liberal and radical republicans. However, Italy's political arena was sharply divided between the radical republicans and the Catholic traditionalists which created frequent deadlock and attempts to preserve governments.